Carbon dating half life equation
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The semimetal or metalloid, arsenic, well known as a poison, was also used for medicinal purposes; it was prescribed for a range of ailments, such as rheumatism, malaria, tuberculosis and diabetes.
In some examples this complexation might be desirable to aid distribution of the drug to where it is required, in others it can be detrimental.
Zinc was also reportedly used to promote the healing of wounds by the Romans.
Mercury has been in use in medicine for around 2000 years with a rather chequered history; mercury(I) chloride was traditionally used in the 16th century as a diuretic and laxative throughout Europe, and was also used to treat syphilis, often effectively poisoning the patient.
What we will aim to do here is to highlight examples of some of the different areas in which metal complexes are important and to demonstrate the particular chemical and physical properties that make them useful.
The text in this online chapter will be supplemented by video material and also sections of texts from books in the Royal Society of Chemistry e Book collection which support this topic area.
There are also reports of gold-based medicines being used in China and Arabia around 2500 BC.
Gold has also been used in dentistry; excavated graves in Italy dating from 1000 to 400 BC were found to have skulls containing gold bridges.
Table 9.1 lists the recommended daily intakes for some of the essential metals, together with some of the effects of deficiencies in these metals (reproduced from Table 1.1).
Table 9.1 UK Food Standards Agency reference nutrient intake (RNI) for adults (and the US Department of Agriculture dietary reference intakes (DRI)) and the effect of deficiency for selected essential metals.
We will also take a detailed look at the use of radioactive nuclei to monitor the functioning of particular organs in the body.
Finally, we shall consider metals as therapeutic agents, in particular those used for the treatment of cancer.
Activity 9.2 gives you the opportunity to read an overview of this subject, again from the opening chapter of (Jones and Thornback, 2007), pages 6–14, then answer the following questions.