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For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic.This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports.
The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and common Croatian.
In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling.
The names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries.
Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan.
The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.
Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, and of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.) in the 10th century.
It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa.
The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little since the 11th century among the common people who inhabited the city.
Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in Dubrovnik.
A 20 km (12 mi) water supply system, instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava.
He completed the aqueduct with two public fountains.
The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio (10th century).