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It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture, and art.Its architecture is a mix of historical (neo-classical), interbellum (Bauhaus and art deco), communist-era and modern.
During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by "Socialist realism" style development: (1) the Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans.The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city.After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing.Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court.During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire.In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I.
During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began.
During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris) of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées.
Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in the Moldavia region.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest.
The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century.
Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor.